What are land reforms? – Inventive

There have been so many changes in the country in recent years, especially with the land reforms put in place by the government. There is a wide range of them, but few people know them all. Here we can find them. But before that, do you still wonder what agrarian reform is? Don’t worry, we’ll let you know, and a bit later we’ll tell you a lot more about them as well. So buckle up and let’s get started.

What is agrarian reform?

Land reform is a program which is particularly undertaken by the national government, and in our case the government of India. It involves the redistribution of agricultural land among the landless.

There are two main objectives of land reforms that are established, and they are:

  • Change the agrarian structure so that it does not hinder but promotes the growth of agriculture.
  • It aims to replace the old land tenure system with a new one that is free from the exploitative characteristics that characterized the old one.

Let’s look at this a little deeper, can we?

Agrarian reforms in India

Rental reforms

The broad set of rental changes includes measures (2) and (3). Each state has tenancy legislation in place to alleviate the problems faced by tenants, whether tenants at will or subtenants. Their living conditions are appalling, as they are subjected to ruthless exploitation, frequent rent increases, at-will evictions, extractions of all kinds, and the terrible system of begging.

According to one estimate, approximately 20% of agricultural land is subject to this type of vacancy. According to the 98th cycle of the National Survey, the proportion varies between 11% and 26% depending on the state.

Abolition of intermediaries

The removal of intermediate levels or layers of various amorphous and parasitic inland organizations between the state and the actual cultivators during the 1950s and 1955 resulted in the abolition of zamindari and similar intermediate tenures.

However, such eradication of intermediaries required compensation for landowners.

About 2.5 million farmers have been put in direct contact with the government as a result of this initiative. This helped distribute 61 lakh hectares of land to landless farmers. The state currently owns large tracts of private woodlands and wastelands.

Ceiling on land holdings

Almost all states have passed the appropriate legislation to redistribute excess land after establishing a cap on land ownership. The maximum farm size is determined by the quality of the land. The cap laws have been updated to standards established in 1972.

Land is usually divided into separate categories based on irrigation, soil type, and other factors. However, a few types of farms are excluded from the cap, including plantations, orchards and sugar cane farms owned by sugar manufacturers.

Farmers who have surplus land beyond the specified ceiling will be required to hand it over to the state in return for fair compensation. Excess land will be transferred to the state and allocated to landless workers and small marginal farmers whose farms are not profitable.

These are some of the land reforms going on in the country right now. And there are new establishments by the government coming frequently for the improvement of the people.

How to find out about the ongoing agrarian reforms in the country?

We know it’s always hard to find the most authentic information, especially with so many hoaxes and fake news spreading across the internet. But, you can still find the right data on official portals such as banglarbhumi or Department of Land Resources, and much more.

These land reforms are not new – they have been followed for the development of the nation for some time. Let’s go back a bit in time and find out.

Ancient Land Reforms of India

Ryotwari system

It was a system that was introduced by Sir Thomas Munro in 1792. In this system, the registered owner of the land has the responsibility to pay the land revenue to the government.

There was no middleman between the landowner and the state, and the landowner had the freedom to sublet his property or give it away by gift or sale. But, he could not be expelled from the land until the revenues were paid.

Mahalwari system

This system was introduced by Viceroy Lord William Bentinck in British India. It started in Agra and Oudh and spread to Punjab. In this system, the land belonged to a small group of families who were the most powerful in their regions and were also responsible for paying rent to that state.

Zamindari System

It is a system that has been established in Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bombay and Tamil Nadu. It was established by Lord Cornwallis who entered a permanent settlement with landlords in 1793. This was for the purpose of increasing the revenue of the East India Company. Usually a zamindar is a landlord who does not cultivate.

Jagirdari System

This was found by the princely states of Rajasthan. In this system, the Jagirs received certain military commanders, ministers and courtiers who took income for their support or for the military force they were obliged to maintain.


You now have your views on India’s land reforms. These land reforms have developed today, and they are also known to have achieved a number of their goals, which you can find out with more research.

Comments are closed.